Clarifications on plagiarism

Before talking about plagiarism, we need to do a bit of clarity !!! Not always using the material of others is plagiarism, but it certainly is if the source is NOT mentioned and an attempt is made to pass the work of others as its own.

How to behave?

In order not to run the risk of being considered a "party", even if New Image mediation is ABSOLUTELY opposed to plagiarism, below is an "excerpt" (not modified) from the site which describes and delivers some advice to avoid passing from the quote ... to plagiarism

Plagiarism: definition

The Garzanti dictionary proposes the following definition of the word plagiarism: "the appropriation and disclosure under its own name of a work or part of a work that is the fruit of the ingenuity of others, especially in the artistic and literary field"

In everyday language there is no distinction between plagiarism, which depends on an aesthetic or moral judgment, and counterfeiting, a legal term, which designates a crime against copyright. Legally, copyright only protects the final version of a work; while the idea that inspired it and the style that gave it shape, as well as the information itself contained in the work, remain unprotected. Nevertheless, the boundary between inspiration, imitation and counterfeiting is sometimes very difficult to determine. The best way to get rid of the risk of plagiarism is to systematically cite the sources used during work, which is mandatory for compliance with the "right to quote".

Identify the loans


The right to quote is combined with a duty: to identify one's own quotations. This identification is done in compliance with certain conventions, the most obvious of which is the use of quotation marks. The identification identification rules allow the reader to:

1. See where the citations are located in the body of the text. It is therefore possible to differentiate the words and ideas of which one is the author from those to be attributed to a third person.

2. Directly consult your source, for:

Verify the integrity of the citation (no change)

Verify the completeness of the quotation (no elimination of parts of text that could change the meaning of the sentence)

Check the relevance of the quotation with respect to the intentions or initial intentions of the author

Deepen intentions, allowing the reader to study the reference texts.

If you do not identify your citations, you will leave the impression that you have not done any research, or worse yet you will think of an attempt to take ownership of another's work. Instead, by appropriately reporting the citations it will be possible for the reader to appreciate the richness of the research work, the quality of the synthesis and the correctness of the personal analysis.


Identify a quote

When using a quote in a text, the rules require:

1. Put the quote "Your text" in quotation marks

2. Use the square brackets and the three ellipses to omit a part of the quote that is judged to be useless. [...]

3. Respect the original punctuation, the capital letters, the bold or italic characters and also the errors, if there are any!

Each quotation must indicate the work of origin

* directly in the text with information concerning the author and the date of publication:

* Example: "According to a Bank of America study, [?] More and more people think that Japanese-made cars are better than those of GM, Ford or Chrysler. »(Arnaud DUMAS, 2007)

* and / or thanks to the inclusion of a reference to footnotes. This note contains various information on the work such as the author, the title, the date of publication, the page ...:

Example: "According to a Bank of America study, [?] More and more people think that Japanese-made cars are better than those of GM, Ford or Chrysler. »(Arnaud DUMAS, 2007) (1) Arnaud DUMAS, The conditions of a French« come-back », L'Usine Nouvelle, 2007, p26

The latter is mainly used for human sciences

Identify a re-formulation (paraphrase)

If you use the paraphrase, it is not simply a matter of finding the synonym for each word used by the author. Instead, it is necessary to review all the syntax and put in quotation marks each word of the author who is re-using this and which one.

In any case, don't forget to mention the source, as in the previous example!

Bibliographic references

When writing the bibliography, it is necessary to follow the following rules depending on the nature of the source:


They must appear in the order: Surname, Name, Title, Edition, Place of publication, Publisher, Year of publication, Number of Pages.

Example: MOORE, Geoffrey A. Crossing the chasm. 1 éd. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2006, 227 p.


Surname, Name, "Title of the article". Periodical title, publication date, volume, number, page.

Example: ANDREAU, Sylvie - "Des managers condamnés à la croissance" - The Usine nouvelle - 11 janvier 2007, n ° 3037, p 62-67

Oral or ephemeral sources

Author of the communication, "Title of the communication", Title of the congress, date of the congress, place of the congress.

Example Marie-Hélène DELMOND. "The savoir faire de l'entreprise hiérarchique au savoir-gérer de the enterprise en réseau: the cas de l'externalisation des services informatiques". Actes du 3e Congrès IFSAM, 8-11 juillet 1996, Paris.


Surname, Name or Body, Site Title, Consulted JJ / MM / AAAA at

Example Olivier DUMONS, Le Monde. "Le grand filtrage des internautes français va bientôt commencer", consulted 10/06/2008 at

Each element must be separated by a consistent punctuation

Is it always necessary to resort to quotations?

It is not necessary to justify the use of the summons when it is stated a fact of public notoriety or published as such in multiple sources.

Instead, it is necessary when:

* they repeat each other's intentions

* the ideas of others are repeated

* they are integrated into the production of visual or sound elements of which one is not the author.

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